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There are so many different types of flies, that I highly doubt anybody has even close to all of the fly patterns available. I will briefly go through all of the trout fly categories, before I attempt to talk about any individual flies.
There are 2 main categories of flies Floating and sinking, also known as dry flies and wet flies.
Dry flies: Obviously dry flies are going to float on the surface of the water to imitate an insect. This could be a bug that has either fallen off the bank or maybe it is in the process of laying eggs. Most dry flies will float because of hackle feather wrapped around the hook multiple times. Another common way to make a fly float well is by using deer or elk hair. These thick hairs are actually filled with air making them very buoyant.
There are even mouse patterns made from spun deer hair. Even though they aren’t technically flies, they still fall into this category.
Wet flies: These will typically represent nymphs, however streamers are also a part of this category. A common technique for fishing with these flies is either stripped through the water, swinging or dead drifting under a strike indicator.